This blog is my second attempt to pull together the most pertinent of facts which support the "missing" UFO/Air Defense historical connection. As part of this endeavor, I have read through as much of the Blue Book documents, from a variety of sources, but most noticeably from the Blue Book archive, that I could spare the time for. Since I have a family and a job, it meant lots of late nights, but I strongly felt it needed to be done. Yes, that makes me just another researcher, as opposed to an "investigator", but to put all of the Air Defense data into an acceptable, and an understandable format which shows the obvious connections with the UFO data, has been quite a chore...all I can muster, at this time. It takes most of my extra time as it it, and then some.
I guess I only say this because of some whining that has occurred in the UFO establishment, so-to-speak, from some well established UFO experts, about how it is so much easier for up-and-coming researchers, than it was for them. I say get over it. You either are in it because you want the truth to be known (as much as is reasonable -that is) or you just want to become "known" as an investigator.
The truth of the matter is that it would require both, working for the same goal. That should be what's important. Also, the only way to truly show the connections is to go over its history, and that has, up-to-now, been mostly ignored by all others.
The same time that SIGN was becoming GRUDGE is the same time that the experts, hired by the Air Force to advise them, were phasing what they were seeing into Air Defense programs, which, at the time, were NOT accepted by the Air Force leaders. They had viewed it all, up to about 1949, with the Soviet Union in mind. Something caused a radical swing from complacency, into a state of near emergency, by 1951. It is the same moment that the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and its Air Force expert counterparts were beginning to cry for the need to integrate the new Digital technology discoveries with Automatic Control systems for Air Defense.
Perhaps it was to further distance itself, visibly, from the UFO problem, or perhaps it was simply aesthetics, but the eventual program, borne from the term Semi-Automated Defensive Ground Environment (SADGE), was christened as the Semi-Automated Ground Environment (SAGE), without the "D". Other countries, who were molded by our success with this system, kept the "D" in their titles. In The Closed World, by Paul N. Edwards* (a comprehensive study of the rise of the closed world philosophy coupled with the creation of digital computers)page 107 of the paperback states:
" SAGE-Air Force project 416L-became the pattern for at least twenty-five other major military command-control systems of the late 1950s and early 1960s (and, subsequently, many more)... ...SAGE-like systems were also built for NATO (NADGE, the NATO Air Defense Ground Environment) and for Japan (BADGE, Base Air Defense Ground Environment)."
official military Defensive Ground Environment Definition
When one realizes the years in question (1949-1952), coupled with the fact that the term was/is Defensive Ground Environment -DGE-then it is easier to see where I get "GR -UFO Defensive Ground Environment" for GRUDGE. The GR could be Global RADAR, or something else, but DGE has been proven to mean Defensive Ground Environment. In the documents turned over to the Archives, by the Air Force, the most notable thing in the material is the transition the UFO program undertook between 1949 and 1952.
After the October, 1949 meeting, at Los Alamos, the UFO program was over-hauled, and rebuilt from scratch. In the process of being rebuilt, the program attained Major Command (MAJCOM) status, and was placed under Air Force Combat Intelligence, where it began to take control of the "physical" UFO work. The head of GRUDGE carried the title 4E-4. GRUDGE was intended to reshape the UFO program into its proper Air Defense posturing, and its first task was to take all of the old SIGN files and re-group and categorize them all in an orderly way, so that the proper and helpful Combat Intelligence data might be retrieved.
One only has to ask oneself if they truly believe it would have ever reached MAJCOM status, under Combat Intelligence, if it were at all mundane in nature?
*Paul N. Edwards, Assoc. Professor of Information, University of Michigan