Monday, June 19, 2017

Prophetic Words Indeed

"Under the circumstances you'd think I would be descreet enough not to go around slaying dragonslayers. But I'm looking into the future, and I don't need a crystal ball to tell me that I won't come through the next occasion unscathed. Like the moon, I'm due for capture. But like the prophet, who was not without honor, save among his own kind and his own kin, I'm not missing at least this opportunity to say: 'I told you those birds couldn't be trusted'" -Frank Scully, from Behind the Flying Saucers, Chapter 9

One thing should be clear to those who find the opportunity to read Scully's book. The information contained within it has much less to do with two, or any number of "con-men", giving him false leads, or fake saucer gizmos.

It is a result of careful study, and attention to the meticulous details surrounding the state of affairs, of the flying saucer story, in that time period.

The "job" was done on Scully, but not by two confidence men. It was accomplished by paranoid, supposed "National Security" minded, individuals that feared exposure of the thought that there was indeed a reality behind the flying discs. These like-minded, secrecy-driven individuals had put much effort into destroying the disc realty concept. They were not about to tolerate any well written expose to the contrary.

Frank Scully knew he would pay a price, for telling the truth, and he was right.

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

Investigating 25 March 1948, Part 3: Flying Discs

©2017 By Bob Koford

Note: in this article, the author has drawn heavily on the official UFO reports available at

In his 1950’s book, Behind the Flying Saucers, author Frank Scully introduced us to the idea that a flying disc had landed on a mesa, not far from the town of Aztec, New Mexico. Mr. Scully did not provide an exact date for this event, but since the time of the book’s publication, witnesses have been located and interviewed who have given us one: 25 March 1948. Other books had been in circulation before Scully’s, discussing the subject of flying saucers in general, but none of them had seriously presented the idea that any them crashed and had been recovered.

In two previous articles [ see: Part one and Part Two ] information was presented from the investigation of this date, and whether there was any reason to believe something like a disc landing could have taken place. In this article, Part 3, evidence will be presented to show that the “Flying Discs” were taken very seriously in the period before and after the Aztec landing was to have occurred.

To begin with, it is usually reported that the 1947 Flying Saucer scare began in late June, with Kenneth Arnold. The Press had reported his story of having sighted several strange objects near Mt. Rainier, in Washington, State. It turns out, he wasn’t the first to have seen and reported something strange.

Sometime in April, a group of weather reporters in Richmond, Virginia spotted “discs” that appeared under the balloons they were tracking. As many as 4 sightings were reported to have occurred over several days. Their description of one of them was as being, “larger than [a] pibal* balloon when observed thru (sic) a theodolite**.” The exact shape was not clear, as the object had passed quickly underneath their balloon. 1

*Pibal is a known meteorological term, referring to the balloon and measuring devices.
** A theodolite is an automatic tracking telescope.

On 30 June, in Arizona, eyewitnesses in a plane reported seeing an object plummet, at an incredible velocity, toward the ground. The object was described by the witnesses as being “light gray” and “circular”. It “seemed to have hit [the]ground some 25 miles north of the south rim of Grand Canyon, Arizona”.2 Details regarding the recovery of this object have not been located. This is especially interesting to ponder, since Scully had said there were three incidents, one occurring in Arizona.

On 3 July, a Mr. John F. Cole, an astronomer in South Brooksville, Maine, reported hearing a loud roar, and saw up to 10 light colored objects flying between 600 and 1200 miles per hour. 3 He was quoted as saying, “the only concrete evidence of form appeared on left tangent of the group - two dark shaped forms”.

On 4 July 1947, a United Airlines DC-3 had a now famous encounter with unknown objects while flying over Emmet, Idaho. Up to nine flying discs were witnessed by the pilot, Captain E. J. Smith, and his co-pilot, Ralph Stevens. 4 A newspaper article reported the incident, on the sixth, adding details about the investigations into the whole flying saucer subject by authorities.

The Sunday News stated: “New reports of the baffling phenomena kept pouring in from western states, where the strange discs first were spotted.” 5The article continued, by saying, “Army Intelligence in Washington, D. C., took the flood of reports seriously enough to begin an investigation.”

The headline for the next article, which appeared on the same page, stated: “Pentagon’s G-2 On Trail of Saucers.”
The article itself read,
“Washington, D. C., July 5- Army Intelligence has begun the job of digging out the facts on the outburst of “flying saucers” reported flitting over widespread parts of the nation, but to date remains completely mystified. The News learned that the saucers are definitely not connected with an U. S. experimental military project.”

It is interesting that they claimed to know that the saucers were not part of our secret arsenal. The article continued with:
“A War Department source revealed that the G-2 section (Intelligence) went to work a year ago on reports of other strange objects flying around the skies and came to the conclusion-never fully verified-that they were meteorites of some description.”

When the author of the article wrote “…a year ago”, that would have been a reference to the Air Section of the War Department General Staff, and the Central Intelligence Group’s 1946 investigation of the so-called Ghost-Rockets, seen over Sweden and Greece.

Though the Air Technical Intelligence Center (ATIC), at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, later became synonymous with investigating UFOs, the Army General Staff had coined the term Unconventional Aircraft. When the objects, described to them by deemed-reliable witnesses, predominantly began to take the form of “discs,” the Army added “Flying Disc” to the category of unknowns in their investigations, hence Colonel Ennis’s 25 March 1948 directive for reporting Unconventional Aircraft,” …including the so-called “Flying Discs”. 6

Within the different categories of objects taken note of over the years, the “disc”, the “sphere” and the “chevron” or “flying wing” shapes topped the list.

Kenneth Arnold reported something akin to a half-moon, and there are a few other reports of this type of object in the official files. The half-moon description did cause some intelligence analysts to take pause, because of their knowledge of the Horton brothers (see previous article), who were known to have worked on radical airplane designs for the Nazis, during World War II. Air Force Intelligence was interested to know whether-or-not any of the sightings of the flying discs could have been attributed to their work. This included the broader question about someone using advanced Nazi technology, in general.

The problem with the Nazi saucer theory can be broken into two questions:

1. Why, after so many years of sightings, had these supposed Nazi (or Soviet utilizing Nazi tech) pilots been so content to just sit back and watch, or play cat-and-mouse with American Air Defense interceptors and not attack? After all, that level of technology would have been a tremendous boost to either the Communist or some remnant of Nazi military forces.

2. If they were a result of our own Nazi-technology-based designs being witnessed, why on earth would such risks have been taken, when it was so unnecessary to do so? The possible loss of either life or technological surprise clearly posed a tremendous danger to our National Security.

It would not make sense for a cheating poker player to announce to their fellow card players that they had an “ace up their sleeve”. In much the same way, the idea that our own forces would put our National Security secrets at risk, not once or twice, but dozens of times, in the manner seen over the years, just doesn’t make sense. Likewise, the thought that some enemy of the United States would take the same types of risks, over, and over again, with nothing to show for it, also makes little or no sense. So, what does that leave us with?

As for the seriousness with which the flying discs were afforded, it can be seen in the now famous memo to General George Schulgen, written in 1947, by the engineering and Intelligence groups at Wright Field, Ohio:7
“It is the opinion that: a. The phenomenon reported is something real and not visionary or fictitious. b. There are objects probably approximating the shape of a disc, of such appreciable size as to appear to be as large as man-made aircraft. c. There is a possibility that some of the incidents may be caused by natural phenomena, such as meteors d. The reported operating characteristics such as extreme rate of climb, maneuverability (particularly in roll), and action which must be considered evasive when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar, lend belief to the possibility that some of the objects are controlled either manually, automatically or remotely”

Though some respected scientists of the day were calling these sightings hallucinations, and a result of “war nerves”, it is clear from the Schulgen memo that this was not the case. If the discs were simply a product of the press and a gullible populace, it does not seem very likely that the Intelligence experts would have concluded that the discs were, “…real and not visionary or fictitious.”

On 30 September 1949, a military policeman assigned to a base in Maryland reported seeing “two unidentified aerial objects near the smoke stack of the Chevrolet Assembly Plant which is adjacent to Camp Holabird “. The witness, Corporal Gaeye Floyd, according to investigators, “described the objects as disc shape, much like an enlarged silver dollar, very shiny…”. 8

In September 1950, the Air Force issued a directive to the CIA,9 that was very similar in form as the Army Letter of 25 March 1948. It used the term Unconventional Aircraft as well, and we know from the Army Letter, 452.1 of 25 March 1948, this included Flying Discs. This is interesting since the CIA maintained, for many years, that it had absolutely no interest in this subject matter.

As for the reported landing of a disc on a mesa, in New Mexico, on 25 March 1948, one thing is a certainty. Though one may not be able to definitively say, for sure, that one landed there, based on the government files reviewed so far, it can clearly be seen that the subject matter pertaining to Flying Discs was taken very seriously, especially by the Army General Staff’s Intelligence Division. Among the several documents located as part of this 25 March 1948 investigation, probably the most compelling was the Army Letter authored by Colonel Riley Ennis, on that date.

There is no mention of a crashed or landed saucer in this directive, but it was issued on the same day that the landing event was to have taken place, and the subject of the letter was: Unconventional Aircraft and Flying Discs!


1. see: file number USAF-SIGN2-35,36; Restricted, “Mr. Minozowski observed a strange metallic disk on three occasions thru the theodolite while making pibal observations during
six-months period…when balloon was at 15,000 ft. He followed it for 15 seconds”

2. see: file number USAF-SIGN2-30,31; “On 30 June 1947 at about 0910 MST, William G. McGinty, P-80 pilot was flying at 25,000 feet over Grand Canyon, Arizona…when he saw
2 round objects going at inconceivable speeds straight down. One of the unidentifiable objects followed the other seconds apart.”

3. see: file number USAF-SIGN2-23,24;”one plane towing a lot of balloons, the witness thought, would have been easily recognized”

4. see: file number USAF-SIGN1-82,83; “…Capt Smith described them as follows: 3 ‘somethings’ which were ‘thin and smooth on the bottom and rough appearing on top”

5. see: file number NARA-PBB1-808, 809; Sunday News, July 6, 1947, True or False, 19th State Sees ‘Saucers’

6. Department of the Army, General Staff, United States Army, Intelligence Division, Washington 25, D. C., GSCID452.1, 25 March 1948, Subject: Unconventional Aircraft

7. see: file number NARA-PBB85-57; “1. as requested by AC/AS-2 there is presented below the considered opinion of this Command concerning the so-called ‘Flying Discs…’”

8. see: file number MAXW-PBB7-598; “1. Investigation predicated upon telephonic report of Captain William C. Hanley, 109th CIC Detachment, 1 October 1949, that two unidentified
aerial objects had been observed in the vicinity of Camp Holabird, Baltimore, Maryland 30 September 1949.”

9. see: CIA’s online FOIA Library; file number CIA-RDP80R01731R003500010009-8; “To: Chief, COAPS, From: Assistant Director, OCD, Subject: Unconventional Aircraft…1. General Cabell has sent us the attached instructions
for reporting upon unconventional aircraft, and has asked that CIA extend all possible cooperation to USAF in gathering such data as circumstances may make available”

Friday, June 2, 2017

Investigating 25 March 1948, Part 2: 452.1

©2017 By Bob Koford

In a previous article, the idea was explored as to whether the March Crisis had any connections to the UFO story, specifically the "Aztec Incident".

It was contemplated that the several UFO incidents reported between March 5th and the 25th, which culminated in a global Air Defense alert ordered by General Spaatz, may have been due, in part, to the Soviet psychological operations being conducted at that time.

For example, there were sightings made on the 5th, 8th and 9th of March 1948 in Bakersfield, California. Quoting from the Confidential report from the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff Intelligence:
“Subject: Investigation of Flying Discs…On 13 March 1948, two informants, Mr. George L. Buchner, and Mr. H. B. Nix, stated that they observed a flying object which appeared to be consumed in fire, and left a brownish, white plume of smoke, which suddenly stopped and disappeared. Seconds later, what appeared to be a parachute, was seen to be drifting to the east...around 1600 hours on 5 March 1948.”1

Analysts within our own Intelligence Community reasoned that starting World War III might indeed be in the Soviet's interest, to finally break the West's economy, though it would pose a monumental risk to do so.2 In this context, including the Flying Disc incidents in the psychological warfare aspect of the March Crisis was considered. The possibility existed that a device made to appear non-terrestrial, with a design characteristic along the lines of a lifting body, could have, conceivably, been dropped by a balloon or aircraft.

A memo, dated 24 September 1947, explored the flying wing design.3 The memo was addressed to Colonel McCoy, of T-2 Intelligence at Wright Field, as per a telephonic request by Major General George McDonald, and it covered Alfred Loedding’s* plans for his flying disc type aircraft, known as the Loedding Flying Disc. The memo also mentions the Horton Brothers 4, and their designs for a lifting body/flying wing, which began as a propeller driven aircraft, but was later developed into a jet-propelled version.
*Loedding was the First lead investigator for the Flying Saucer program

In the upper right margins of both the first and third pages of this memorandum are hand-written notations, which read: "X-452.1 Airplanes + Misc." In this instance, the X could refer to a file set, but it might also refer to the office of Special Projects, as was operated out of Wright Field, by the Chief of Staff, Intelligence. It could also be both, that is, it was a file created and maintained by the Office of Special Projects. This was the office, along with Air Intelligence, that ran Project: SIGN (Project: XS-304), which was the first “official” flying saucer investigation.

Before this writer had any information on the March Crisis, the March 25th date was the subject of special inquiry. To be fair, Frank Scully never mentioned an exact date for the incident near Aztec in his book Behind the Flying Saucers, and other information seemed to hint at the date being the summer of 1949. Still, two of the witnesses who had no prior knowledge of each other's testimony had claimed 25 March 1948 to be the correct date for the so-called "Aztec Incident." Also, Scully had claimed there were at least three flying saucer crashes or landing incidences.*
* Actor and FBI informant, Bruce Cabot, stated to AF OSI in 1949 that the three took place in New Mexico, Arizona and Maine

The first item on the list of evidence discovered surrounding the March 25th date, by this researcher, was the March 25th directive, by Colonel Riley Ennis, which ordered all military elements to send reliable information on Unconventional Aircraft and Flying Discs to the Army General Staff Corps, Intelligence Division (GSCID), through the Air Material Command headquarters at Wright Field, Ohio. This document directed these investigatory elements to use the code 452.1, with control number A-1917. 5

Though this directive had been found by other UFO researchers previously (see, for example, Project 1947's document master list), it does not appear that they were aware of its significance with regards to the March 25th date. Since the time this directive was found and read, by this writer, several other documents related to this filing system (452.1) have been discovered, such as the 24 September 1947 memorandum mentioned above. In that memorandum 452.1 was associated with the date 9 June 1947, and the phrase Military Attaché, Moscow Ussr. We know from this document that the 452.1 file number was in use in 1947, before the 25 March 1948 directive.

Another memo was found by this writer in the CIA’s files, though it is an Army GSC memo, also authored by Colonel Ennis, and using the 452.1 file code. It was written 2 November 1948, and is addressed to the Director/CIA. The subject of this memo is: Scientific and Technical Intelligence on Aircraft and Weapons.6 It makes no mention of Unconventional Aircraft or Flying Discs, but the 452.1 code tells us that it fell into the Unconventional Aircraft GSC filing system. It is clear, from this memo, that the information requested by the Assistant Director for Reports and Estimates of the CIA, which Colonel Ennis was replying to, dealt with Ground Force Weapons.

Could Colonel Ennis have been replying to the Assistant Director regarding weapons in use that could have brought the disc down? Or perhaps there were questions surrounding some type of defensive weapon that could be used in the future? It had been reported that there was some type of hole in one of the port holes, at the top of the dome, on the disc. It was not clear whether this had a relationship with the downing of the craft. This pontificating about the reasons for the memo is complete conjecture, admittedly. Whatever the reasons were for the inquiry, it was handled via the GSC’s 452.1 Unconventional Aircraft file system.

How long this GSC/ID filing code had been in use is not yet clear. However, since the investigations into strange aerial phenomena were conducted before and during World War II, 7 by the Air Staff of the War Department General Staff (WDGS), which was the USAGSC/ID's predecessor, it is this writer's opinion that the 452.1 system could very well be the filing system designated for these earlier investigations. It is likely that A-1917 is the code for the General Staff, and 452.1 referred to the category of investigating Unknown Aerial Phenomena and Unconventional Aircraft, by the GSC/ID.

In other words, the Army had an on-going investigation into Unconventional Aircraft long before the Air Force had even been created, and it used the filing system designated as 452.1. One of the most intriguing aspects to Colonel Ennis’s March 25th directive is that it is cited in later unknown object reports. This in fact continued for several years.8

In Paul N. Edward’s The Closed World (© 1996 Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Lt. General Ennis C. Whitehead (Air Force Commander/ Far East Division) is credited as having a significant effect on the decision by General Spaatz to order the 24-hour a day Air Defense alert, which began on the 25th.9 But as is noted, the directive by Colonel Ennis, issued on the same day, had to do with Unconventional Aircraft and Flying Discs.

On what is perhaps a side-note, this writer had investigated another strange incident which seemed to have affected the air defense establishment, or its beginnings. Located within the so-called “Blue Book” files, there resides a case which occurred on 12 October 1947.10 It consisted of reports of a silvery cylindrical object impacting just across the border of the United States, in Mexico. It is brought up here because of its possible connections with Air Defense alertness. In The Emerging Shield, by Kenneth Schaffel, which is a comprehensive history of Air Defense put together for the Air Force Office of History, the author notes, on page 72, the following details:

“In mid-October 1947, Vandenburg went to Mitchel Field to discuss the (Air Defense) situation with Stratemeyer*, and then invited him to Washington where, on October 23, he briefed major Air Force leaders. His audience included Symington, Spaatz, and key members of the Air Staff, including Norstad, just assigned as Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations after his tour on the War Department General Staff. This meeting proved an important event in the story of postwar air defense. Vandenburg achieved success in clearing the way for Stratemeyer to initiate air defense operations.”

Though the 12 October incident was played down, in the Air Force UFO files, as being something not significant, there is no doubt that it temporarily created a burst of memos, up until 24 October, when the subject was dropped very suddenly. Whether it was connected to the 12 October incident or not, the October meeting at Mitchel Field removed the blockage to getting a comprehensive United States air defense system in place. This is noted here to demonstrate the commonalities between how the air defense alert was raised on 25 March 1948, coinciding with a reported landing of a disc in New Mexico, and a potential impact in Mexico that seemed to possibly have been used as a catalyst for jump starting our air defense program, in October 1947.

Whether one dismisses the Aztec Incident as a hoax, or not, the fact remains that something did indeed occur, on 25 March 1948, that reverberated for years afterward. If it was not the landing of a disc on a mesa in New Mexico, as certain witnesses have described, then it was something of equal importance. It was also something not openly discussed.

*Lt. General George Stratemeyer was Commander, Air Defense Command (ADC), located at Mitchel Field, New York


1. see: ; MAXW-PBB3-627 and associated documents
2. see: Central Intelligence Agency Library, document number CIA-RDP72-00121A000; Note on the "March War Scare" of 1948, Enclosure B: Dissent of the Intelligence Organization Department of the Air Force, page 27, " is in deeping (sic) with Soviet thinking to conclude that another World War may do the final job of wrecking our economy, thereby ending the last major opposition to Soviet Communist expansion, and it may well be to their advantage to get it started."
3. see: ; NARA-PBB85-49; 24 September 1947, Subject "Flying Disc"
4. see: ;documents NARA-PBB87-172 through 192; Unidentified Aerial Phenomena, A Briefing by the Air Technical Intelligence Center Wright Patterson Air Force Base Dayton, Ohio, Prepared 1 April 1952
5. Department of the Army General Staff, United States Army Intelligence Division Washington 25, D.C.; GSCID 452.1; 25 March 1948, Subject: Unconventional Aircraft
6. see: Central Intelligence Agency FOIA Library, document number CIA-RDP75-00662R000; SECRET Department of the Army General Staff, United States Army, Washington 25, D.C., CSGID 452.1, 2 November 1948; Subject: Scientific and Technical Intelligence on Aircraft and Weapons
7.see: for instance, Strange Company, ©2007 by Keith Chester
8. For example: 1 October 1948, referencing a September sighting in Santa Fe, New Mexico. “…Reference is made to Control no. A-1917, as requested in letter, Intelligence Division, GSCID 452.1, 25 March 1948, subject, “Unconventional Aircraft.”; letter from Headquarters Orlando Airbase, references a January, 1949 sighting. “…In compliance with Air Defense Command Letter 200-1, Headquarters Air Defense Command, Mitchel Air Force Base, New York, dated 25 March 1948, the following report of information on “Flying Discs” is submitted; Headquarters Fourth Army, in Fort Sam Houston, Texas, is dated 15 March, 1949, in regards to a sighting in New Mexico 8 March 1949. “…Reference letter Intelligence Division, GSUSA, GSCID 452.1, 25 March 1948, Subj. “Unconventional Aircraft,” and to Control No. A-1917”; 25 April 1950, and is still referring to the same letter, although in the upper left corner there is a new, other control number reference: ALFOB-I, which stands for Air Letter Flying Objects- Intelligence. “…1. In compliance with letter, Department of the Army, GSUSA, GSCID 452.1, dated 25 March 1948, subject: Unconventional Aircraft, control number A-1917,…”.
9. see: A Closed World, by Paul N. Edwards, ©1996 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Page 88, “The alert lasted nearly a month, until it was suddenly canceled in mid-April”
10. see: document NARA-PBB2-291 and accompanying documents;, ”DATE: 14 October 1947…Request all available information regarding unidentified Flaming object reported to have crashed into Samalayuca Mountains of Mexico…”

Monday, April 3, 2017

Investigating 25 March 1948

For nearly the entire month of March, 1948, individuals in charge of our nation’s National Security struggled with the possibility of "atomic" war with the Soviets. It has been generally described, in various historical works, as the “March Crisis”1. In fact, global ideological struggles in that time-period demanded that United States security experts pay close attention to everything going on. Included in this were many strange incidents of unknown airborne object sightings across the United States.2

By late 1949, stories began circulating about a Flying Disc, of unknown origin, landing on a mesa in New Mexico. This author suggests that the reader check out the now definitive book on the subject: The Aztec UFO Incident, by Scott and Suzanne Ramsey, and Frank Thayer, PhD. Per their research, this incident occurred on March 25, 1948. Surely the possibility must be considered that there is some sort of connection between this incident and the March crisis of 1948. Either the disc was truly of unknown origin, or perhaps it was part of the ongoing Soviet deception plan underway, at that time.

Stress regarding Soviet intensions began in January, but formerly classified historical reports maintain that the crisis began on the 5th, when General Lucius Clay sent an urgent telegram to the Head of the Army Intelligence Division, General Chamberlin*. In it he noted a striking change in the Russians’ behavior**. From Secretary Forrestal’s diary, for 5 March 1948:

*In the definitive account of Defense Secretary Forrestal’s life and work, Driven Patriot (©1992 by Townsend Hoopes and Douglas Brinkley), namely in the Chapter entitled: “The War Scare”, it is noted that General Clay’s letter to the President had been more so inspired by a visit from the “visiting Director of Army Intelligence, Lieutenant General Stephen Chamberlin” than the abrupt change in attitude by the Soviets
** Ibid; Page 225, Paragraph 2

From the 5th through the 25th, tensions in Washington, in regards to possible Soviet aggression, rose and fell. While this writer thinks it unlikely that the "disc" that is said to have landed in New Mexico, on the 25th, was a Soviet trick, it is also true that the Soviet Russians were deeply embroiled in a rather intense deception plan at that time, the goal of which being to drive the western powers out of Berlin. The Russians, timing their deception to coincide with other bold moves they were behind, attempted to convince those observing that they were pulling together a large invasion force, on the Berlin border.3

The deception seemed to work briefly, and it seemed to result in General Carl Spaatz issuing a world-wide air defense alert on the 25th/26th.4 Cooler heads prevailed and it soon became clear that it was all a ruse. Most of the Intelligence experts of the time, including Admiral Hillenkoetter, did not agree with the March 5th assessment, and did not see the Russians as being prepared for a major war.5 Never-the-less, no one wanted to take a chance on another Pearl Harbor event.

Considering that it was almost entirely the Air Force, and head of Army Intelligence, General Stephen J. Chamberlin, who seemed vastly more concerned than anyone else, the question must be asked: Why? When other major players in the National Security arena were all dismayed, at their level of concern, why was the Air Force so alarmed?6

It is an admittedly odd coincidence that the disc was reported to have fallen on the 25th, and that just happens to be the same date that General Spaatz ordered the air defense alert. If the disc was not Russian, what was its origin? What would have been the purpose of flying around in the United States' airspace, only to crash land in New Mexico? Were they non-terrestrials, worried about the proliferation of our atomic weapons? After all, from June 1947 through June 1948, our stockpile grew from 13 to 50**. Were these non-terrestrials monitoring the "March crisis", or was it part of a different type of deception game, run by an American office specializing in such things?

One could suppose that the disc was a hoax perpetrated by Washington insiders who wanted to force the President into giving the Air Force its larger funding request, and to institute Universal Military Training (UMT), which the President was opposed to.

Colonel Riley Ennis7 had been Chief/Intelligence Group of the United States Army, General Staff Corps, at the time in question. He authored a directive with world-wide distribution to all the major air defense units. This directive created or enhanced the code 452.1, with control number A-1917, on 25 March, which ordered the Air Material Command at Wright Patterson AFB to collect “Unconventional Aircraft” and "Flying Disc" reports, for the GSC's Intelligence Division.8 He was also a proponent of UMT.

Could he possibly have been participating in a deception plan meant for the President? Might Ennis and fellow "conspirators" in the Intelligence community simply have been trying to use a potential "invasion of America" scenario to build support for more Defense spending? To this writer, that possibility seems like more of a stretch than anything that has ever been considered before. Would the Intelligence Department of the USA/GSC, especially the Intelligence Group, headed by Colonel Ennis, have had the where-with-all to create such a convincing alien crew and ship that would have successfully fooled everyone involved with the recovery? And even if one thought the answer to that question was "yes," the next big question would be: "did it work"? The answer to that question would have to be no. The individuals pushing Truman for such an increase in the budget only got some of what they wanted, and even that was only because of the perceived Russian aggression in Berlin and elsewhere. It certainly does not appear that it was because we thought they had Flying Discs at the ready.

What the record clearly shows us is this:
By the 15th, the Intelligence Community had begun to address the problem dealing with its abilities to coordinate Intelligence summaries and the better over-all sharing of their world situational views.9

General Clay was interviewed on the 25th, and said he did not expect any major move from the Soviets10

General Carl Spaatz ordered a global Air Defense alert, beginning on the 25th. On the 26th he participated in a tele-conference, making his wishes and orders clear.11

Although the 26th is the date sometimes sited, in standard historical material, as the date for the Air Alert, the USA/GSC, ID letter of Instruction 452.1, with control number A-1917, was issued on the 25th, and it was drafted for world-wide distribution. Air Defense Command (ADC) order 45-5 was issued on the same day. Continental Air Command (CoNAC) letter of instruction 200-1 along with Tactical Air Command (TAC) letter 200-1 had also been issued on this same day.12

Interestingly, these all dealt with “Unconventional Aircraft” and “Flying Discs”, not Soviet aggression.


1. see: Central Intelligence Agency publication,Studies in Intelligence, Volume: 11, Issue: Spring Year: 1967; March Crisis 1948, ACTS I and II, by William R. Harris
2. see:; use search engine with dates in March, 1948; several cases are in these files beginning on the 5th
3. see: Driven Patriot, ©1992 by Townsend Hoopes and Douglas Brinkley, page 370: “the War Scare; see: A Preponderance of Power, ©1992 by Melvyn P. Leffler, page 225
4. see: Central Intelligence Agency publication, Studies in Intelligence, Volume: 11, Issue: Spring Year: 1967; March Crisis 1948, ACT II, by William R. Harris; Page 20, "On that Good Friday (the 26th) General Carl S. (Tooey") Spaatz decided that key elements of the U.S. Air Force should be placed on an immediate alert. At 2:37 p.m. Air Force officers in the Pentagon held a telecon with the Alaskan Air Command, for example: 1. It is the decision of the Chiefs of Staff that your aircraft control and warning system operate twenty-four hours a day continuously, commencing at once."; see: The Emerging Shield, copyright 1953-1988, Kenneth Schaffel, for the Office of Air Force History
5. see: The Forrestal Diaries; Edited by Walter Millis; Page 395, “…It is inconceivable that even the gang who run Russia would be willing to take on war…”
6. see: Memorandum for the Director of Central Intelligence, Subject: CIA Relations with the Air Force on Estimates of Soviet Intentions, SECRET, 23 December 1948, “…it is quite true, however, that at the time of the preparation of the 60 day estimate for the second meeting of the IAC Directors and of ORE 22-48, the Air Force elements were far more alarmist than any of the others…”
7. see: Operation Downfall, the Devil was in the Details, by D. M. Giangreco, 1995, for informational background on Ennis
8. On file with author: GSCID 452.1; 25 March 1948; Subject: Unconventional Aircraft, “the Intelligence Division has a specific requirement for information regarding the sighting of unconventional aircraft, including the so-called “Flying Discs.”
9. 9a. see: CIA reading room, document number; CIA-RDP80R01731R003400070040-8.pdf, detailing the early stages of the new CIG’s, National Intelligence Survey (NIS); 9b. Central Intelligence Agency publication, Studies in Intelligence, Volume: 11, Issue: Spring Year: 1967; March Crisis 1948, ACT II, by William R. Harris…”While U. S. intelligence agencies hammered out unanimous no-deliberate-war estimates on March 15 and 16, 1948, thus laying to rest the scare raised by General Clay’s “blockbuster” cable of March 5 and closing down the first act of the ‘crisis’...”
10. see: Central Intelligence Agency publication, Studies in Intelligence, Volume: 11, Issue: Spring Year: 1967; March Crisis 1948, ACT II, by William R. Harris; Page 19, paragraph 2, “…I am not expecting any conflagration to break out tomorrow or the next day, by any means”
11. see: Central Intelligence Agency publication, Studies in Intelligence, Volume: 11, Issue: Spring Year: 1967; March Crisis 1948, ACT II, by William R. Harris; Page 20, "On that Good Friday (the 26th) General Carl S. (“Tooey") Spaatz decided that key elements of the U.S. Air Force should be placed on an immediate alert. At 2:37 p.m. Air Force officers in the Pentagon held a telecon with the Alaskan Air Command, for example: 1. It is the decision of the Chiefs of Staff that your aircraft control and warning system operate twenty-four hours a day continuously, commencing at once."
12. see: www.; several documents dated from March 25, 1948 onward into the nineteen-fifties

Monday, May 2, 2016

For Whom It May Concern: This is my Only Blog

To anyone reading this: This is my only blog. I have no other blogs or web pages!

For a brief period, several years ago, I tried adding a blog dealing with ancient scripture, but I didn't have time to pull it off. It wasn't up for very long.

Since then, I have not done anything else but this blog: GRUDGE...THAT'S IT!

If you see any other web page or blog that says, "By Bob Koford", just know that it has absolutely NOTHING to do with me. ADDED: Actually, I do have a couple of music sites, but not blogs or web pages, especially not any dealing with the paranormal.

Thanks for your time,

the "real" Bob Koford

Wednesday, March 9, 2016

Pertinent Aztec Info - 2

This is quoted from:
the Emerging Shield; the air force and the Evolution of Continental Air Defense 1945-1960
Kenneth Schaffel cr1953-1988

(pages 77-78)

"After moving from the west coast to parcicpate in the war games, the 505th was expected to remain in the east. ADC planned to concentrate its meager radar warning and control resources in the northeastern United States pending approval and funding of the Radar Fence Plan, but its plans were abruptly and drastically altered late in March 1948. With no advanced warning, Headquarters USAF directed that an emergency air defense system be established to operate around the clock in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest. Shortly after, First Air Force in the east was ordered to put its fighter units on alert. The usefulness of this move was uncertain since First Air Force did not yet control the services of the 505th and thus lacked any type of radar warning and control capability. 119

These events began Thursday, March 25, when Spaatz suddenly informed the Air Staff that he wanted Alaskan air defense "augmented" immediately." 120

119 Hist, 1AF, Jan-Jun 1948
120 HQ USAF Interstaff Memo, Brig Gen Edward J. Timberlake to Maj Gen Smuel E. Anderson, Mar 25, 1948, USAFHRC microfilm

Saturday, October 17, 2015


This page quoted from:

Memorial Tributes: National Academy of Engineering, Volume 12 (2008)
Chapter: Frederic C.E. Oder, Page 228

Elected in 1980

"For leadership in conceiving and developing civl and military satellites."


"FREDERIC C.E. "FRITZ" ODER, colonel, United States Air Force (retired), and former vice president of Lockheed, died May 11, 2006, in Gloucester, Massachusetts, at the age of 86. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1980"

"Images collected by early satellites gave U.S. presidents photographic evidence of Soviet activities and enabled them to make decisions that had far-reaching implications for America and its allies. ...In 2000, for this and other contributions to national security—many of which remain classified— Fritz was named a pioneer in national reconnaissance and was inducted into the Air Force Space and Missile Pioneers Hall of Fame."